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Safety

Energy security - Electrification  - Appendix

Implementation of ideas in places other than Hawaii.

California - Los Angeles - Sacramento -Weed - Ashland - Medford - Eugene - Portland - Seattle

Construct tunnels from Newhall to Pastoria Creek in Kern County CA. Lengths are about 36 miles and large enough to hold one track per tunnel in the twin bore tunnel. Include space at the sole of the tunnel to transport freshwater from the Kern County to LA and said secondary water from LA to the Kern County for the modeled wetlands.

Transport freshwater with less pumping effort, thus saving energy,  to the greater LA area and cancel pumping water over the mountain range. Secondary water, not used in LA for recycling purposes would go to Kern County for final biological recycling and then to be used to irrigate land down the valley. Water flow is in conduits, no cross contamination of the water would occur by this setup.

The tunneling for rail and its linked civil engineering are essential for our Nation in today’s environment of global competition.

        TBM   Tunnel_03   Tunnel_02   Tunnel_01

 

 PROSIT - AMERICA

Let's start with construction of High-Speed-Electrified-Rail Transit!

We need speedy intercity connections and the comfortable way to travel with the IC Trains.

We need to build supper rail lines in order to conserve fuel and protect the land mass.

The Truck - Car Highways are congested, more oil based transit can no longer be supported and is therefor unsustainable!

Here often we could use existing rail right-of-ways, however they need widening of the curves. Some triple or quad tracking may be required to handle the traffic increase. The existing center track would be for heavy freight, and each new outside track would be for high-speed passenger, and light high-speed freight. Electrify this new line with out of head clearance problems because of double stack freight trains.

The far separation of the high-speed tracks is to reduce head wind pressure when high-speed trains cross each other. With this approach we will also be able to increase curve radius in some tight curve parts of the existing lines. Reducing unneeded braking and reaccelerating is a most for fuel conservation as well as time efficient transport.

The new California - Oregon - Washington - Vancouver BC Line

San Diego CA to Vancouver BC with 7 mill (0.7%) grades or less!

Construct tunnels in the Shasta, Siskiyou, Riddle area. This new line will have a maximum grade of only 0.7% and will address the curve reduction as well as much of the distance shortening. The highest elevation is only 3003 feet above sea level in comparison with the Shasta  high line of 5063 feet. This is reducing the clime of 2060 Feet in elevation and therefore reducing fuel demand for the locomotives. Less power will be required in this lower grade line, again saving fuel and reducing carbon loadings.

Every gallon saved in one form or an other can the be allocated elsewhere.

The planning is not yet available on this web site.

Other Regions

In rail curve rich areas such as Pittsburgh PA for examples we would cut many new, relative short tunnels, therefore straitening the trackage and significantly shortening the rail lines. This shortening of the lines will lessen fuel consumption because of the shorter distances to travel as well as the power consuming curve friction. Let us erase the excess fuel guzzling with smart built curve lessened lines. Such new rail lines will also drastically speed up the travel time, therefore adding capacity and overall transit efficiency.     

Electrification

One more recommendation the writer would like to see is, to begin with the electrification of the mountain passes. The role may be as follows, as some of us know, our modern diesel locomotives come with the dynamic brakes. So, therefore add electric locomotives in the mountainous pass region to help to push uphill and or to absorb the dynamic braking electric power from the diesels on the down hill trip. This special electric mountain locomotive will now absorb the produced electricity (now called regenerative braking) by the new EML-RB locomotive. Cables (via HEP) will be linked from the in dynamic braking mode diesel locomotives to the EML-RB to recycle the electricity and feed such power back in to the catenary. Also absorb the electric power from the diesels during the braking cycle, synchronize and return the power to the overhead (Catenaries) power grid. The use of rectification if needed. No power will flow to the resistors on the "Diesels," but, as said, will flow forward to the EML and therefore preserve energy. Not needed is an extra   heavy-duty overhead catenary since we still use the diesels. Such diesels will still run in the flats in the through runs and provide pull power on the incline. Adding the EML at the pass divisions will not involve to disconnect the diesels from the trains consist, beak tests are quickly re-established.

Saved or reused power is also a boost to protect the environment.

In addition the electric locomotive will lead by the MU Power and control management, this is possible with the computerized information technology giving us real time results and switching abilities. By-directional metering, for "consume - produce" is also available.

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In some cases, and/or parts of a section, where the overhead wiring (Catenaries) is not installed, the "electric" would run dry, or during a start up, the electric could take some of the excess power from the diesels and provide additional traction effort. This would perhaps be a saving on wheel deterioration, due to wheel slip reduction. Or we could also wire (Centenary) areas, where frequent startups and/or stops occur.

The resolution is toward greater energy independence.

Certain tunnels may require a special insulator pannels at the ceiling if there is not enough air clearance between the wires and the dome--we do not want arc outs.

I would also suggest this in other corridors where we add the new high-speed rail outside the existing freight lines. Heavy freight stays in the center lane and can operate as heavy freight on the existing heavy rails, while high-speed passenger and high speed light freight will move on the outside tracks.

Proper signaling can be provided in places where heavy freight needs to exit or enter, or even better, we can provide over and underpasses, similar to those in the interstate highway system. High-head wind impact, at point of meeting trains, will also be drastically reduced. Remember that rail transport still does require much less land use, compared to hard surface, multi-lane roadways.

Plus, the upkeep is easier.

- - -

Schematics of the EML - EMD

Red = Electrical Power in to the Locomotive - s from the Catenary

Blue = Electrical Power Regenerated during braking out from the Diesels and the EML to the Catenary

Cyan = Transformers, they will process the power to the respective need

 EMD Diesel Generated Electrical Power, this will flow to the traction motors as required (i.e. during a startup)

Under certain times the Catenary Electrical Power will provide all the power to run the Train (i.e. after a startup) During this time the Electrical Power will flow from the catenary via the EML to the EMD traction motors as well

EML

Power transmission lines could often follow the rail lines right of way; this would help to earn money for the right-of-way, a join venture between the railroads and the power distributors. The towers would be in the right of way and over the track segments.

This should be likely, since we will build relative large towers for the 345 KV to perhaps 500 KV main distribution lines.

A far reaching way of thinking

How about having National to even International running rights?  (USA - Canada - Mexico)

The dominating thinking, as the “I” Company would dwindle to the “We” Company’s way of thinking. This way of thinking will produce less friction and therefore benefiting the whole. You find this in the introduction of   HART - BEAT, sub heading “philosophy and inspiration.

Basically all the roadways and its infrastructure would belong to perhaps a third party or the Government. This group will be responsible to maintain and upgrade the rights of way to the highest standards. This may be similar as the US interstate highway system. On the interstate highway system any trucking company can run and transport freight. This is a major advantage over the railroad’s network.

This revised way of thinking will open up rail freight expedients. Example, if we have some consist of freight ready from LA to NY, then, we simply allocate the correct power and go. Yes a “We” company will now run through all the way. On the return we got a consist to run to MI, again we go and from there on to TX and so on. Power reduction or increase will be on route, depending as per territory. This sort of shipping may dictate at times a smaller “consist”, but we will gain time the essential satisfying factor for the customer.

Once more, we are now in the 21st century and vastly advancing in the technological spectrum. Let us take advantage thereof. A fully integrated computer system will do the required job well. WAN - LAN and the local stations and sub stations will allow the on time information needed. GPS will also place a significant contribution toward the systems operational benefit. Traffic control would be standardized and of the most advanced type. With PTC and the overlaying CTC a full, economically efficient and complete rail network can now be established. Detour due to maintenance of way or adverse weather can be routed most effectively and therefore again provide the society with the best transportation. Maintenance windows are easy to establish due to the now open rout system. This will benefit the National fuel conservation and environmental aspect.

 

Mega Water Project 

Flood the Death Sea in California with Pacific Sea Water to the elevation of zero or sea level. Projected area is 342 square miles. This area is 1 twelfth in size compared with lake Erie, the Lake Erie is also creating those "Lake effects, see below"

Purpose for this proposal is to create an inland evaporation basin. This evaporated water should increase the precipitations for the States in Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona and others.

More rain fall will contribute to the fresh water needs of those states, including California. More moisture in the inland regions may help the growth of new forests. Forest will be carbon sinks and air cleaners as well as water purifiers.

The pumped in pipe line routing will follow the Santa Anna river to near Muscoy and then enter the 21 mile tunnel to NE of Hesperia CA.

The proposed tunnel will hold one rail line and is intended to be for the uphill traffic of the trains. The grade is 1.2% in this designed tunnel, the Cajon pass has a steep grade of 2.8%. Such grade reduction will safe much precious fuel and will consequently reduce pollution. Fuel savings by the trains can be used for the pumping needs. Fuel is fuel, every gallon reduced in consumption in one area will help other areas of consumption.

The highest elevation is 2884 feet in this proposed route. For pumping stations are planed to overcome the crest. Mojave side is still in planning so, as to use a canal route or a pipe line route. The pipe line would provide us with some down stream electrical generation to offset the pumping effort.

From Hesperia we will follow the Mojave River Cannel to Silver Lake near Backer CA. From Silver lake we will install a siphon line to pass over the shallow crest to connect with the Salt River Drainage and from there we will reach the Death Valley on the south side.

Salinity will increase due to the evaporation process. Control this by the installation of salt evaporation fields in the northern part of the now filled basin. Excess salt may be harvested as mineral containing sea salt for the market, People and Animals will benefit from this salt.

The flooded basin will also provide recreational territories.

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THE new AIR BRAKE

Now, since we have AC Locomotives, let us design the electrically assisted air brake. Envision the total length of the train with this setup. Now this whole section will receive the AC power to actuate electrically the solenoid in the (direct air tank pressure.) During Very light braking, we may not use the electrically assisted system. However during the more demanding requirements, such as medium and strong braking we will use the electrical system to activate the braking. For the emergency braking application we can use the combined setting, electric (direct pressure feed to the brake cylinders as well as direct locomotive air brake line pressure drop. This rapid respond [ing] setup will reduce the feared run-ins and possible derailments, plus this setup will infect reduce the stopping distance. In addition, if we use the instant (direct pressure application to the brake cylinders) we can now use the train air line to instantly re-supply the air tanks through out the train. Should the electric system fail for any reason, well than we still have the standard air line pressure drop available to actuate the train brake.

THE WIRING

The wiring would require a three or as needed lead system consisting of the ground wire and the two or respectively required hot wires. In this manner, we can obtain the requested power supply to operate the assigned solenoid valves. The solenoid valves will receive the air tank pressure via the check valve and then the installed pressure regulator.

Solenoid #1 = mild braking            Pressure regulator @ low psi

Solenoid # 2 = medium braking     Pressure regulator @ medium psi

Solenoid # 3 = strong braking       Pressure regulator @ medium high psi

Emergency = combination of #3 plus full air via the brake line pressure drop.

All solenoids are normally closed but will open when energized.

Solenoid # 4 will be the brake release mechanism, on this solenoid we can now apply a short burst of energy or a long burst just as we desire. With short bursts we can actually reduce the braking effort step by step so to speak, a grand benefit to run efficient road speeds. We can also immediately re-apply more braking if so desired. The # 4 solenoid switch will require spring loading in order prevent an accidentally closed circuit, we just do not want an open bleed wile applying brakes.

Remember, that in an emergency application the first and the last car in the train will receive the strong braking instantly and full pressure shortly there after.

In addition and under normal train operation with this electrically actuation setup we can in fact maintain the full air pressure to all the rail cars under any circumstance. No more [out of air] a disastrous occurrence. Also since we can apply the brakes via electrical currant to the controlling solenoids we can in fact apply and release the brakes at any time to the wish of the operating engineer. With this setup the brake line can always be under the charge mode, the only time the air line system would go in to the reduction of air pressure is in case of an emergency braking application, [last resort so to speak] You see we have now created a dual braking system for the 21st century transportation realm. This application will increase the running time of the entire freight rail system. We can now run trains in closer successions aside with GPS dispatching; this means that we can utilize the currant track network more efficiently and hopefully readily compete with truck freight.

The valve system:

The valve systems may be insulated to protect the solenoid’s functioning during cold weather; "Icing of the air valve." A thermostatically controlled heating tape could be used. This however, would require a still additional-lead wire system. The solenoid valve assembly could be outfitted with quick disconnect couplings for easy disconnect - re-connect and service. No car shop visit of a whole car is needed; this system would by no means replace the "ETD."

THE APPLICATION

This system would first be installed in high-priority trains, such as stack trains, and also in high priority trains and/or trough trains. -International freight. - The upgraded rail cars would receive a special paint scheme, example; some large, but uniform diagonal stripe on each side of the upgraded rail car. As time goes on, the classification yard can then make up consists for the priority runs.

THE BENEFITS

A quicker braking response, (reduction of reaction delay); a dual or backup braking system; a more positive "bring to a halt condition." This would hopefully reduce runaways, therefore creating a safer situation for the operators, and perhaps also the public. A run-away can cause derailment with possible spills of HAZ materials; any thing to help to reduce or prevent such an occurrence is a benefit to the whole. Other benefits would be hopefully the savings on equipment, roadbeds, bridges, and etc.

Additional recommendations on the air brake.

Would this be possible?

Say we outfit each rail car with a scanner receiver (on each side). The scanner receiver would then pick up the "Proximity" tag for the given rail car at the classification yard scale. The proximity tag will then by onboard computer be processed in the valve proportioning. This setting will then stay till the next re-classification, say after un loading, or loading of the given rail car.

The proximity tag would have 6 settings. The settings will be set according to the current weight of the individual rail car:

00-25 t = .1 or 16.6%

25-50 t = .2 or 33.3%

50-75 t = .3 or 50.0%

75-100 t = .4 or 66.6%

100-125 t = .5 or 83.3%

125 t > t = .6 or 100 %

The % will always reflect the Engineer’s,

Applied braking air pressure.

=

Each rail car is now controllable according to the respective weight.

(Pressure proportioned)

When the engineer applies the brake; for example the mild braking for the train, then a fully loaded rail car would then act 1x .6 = of the full (100%) mild brake. The empty car however, would brake to @ .1 also (16%) of the mild brake. All this would be working in this manner throughout the given braking application. Again, at a full brake  = 66% of the full brake with a 100> ton car.

At the classification yard, as the rail cars travel over the scale, they will then receive the corresponding proximity tag. This tagged car will now stay in this mode; until it is changed at another place or time as loaded or unloaded and be reclassified.

The all-weather scanner will now pick up the code. The code will now set the near correct proportionate braking force for the given car. (Proportioned according to weight, utilizing microcomputer switching). This switching will now set the primary pressure reducing valve. This valve is ahead of the # 1-2-3 solenoids.

The locomotive:

The current air brake valve would be supplemented, "not completely replaced" With brake application buttons: one button for each designated solenoid, they may be color coded.

As braking is initiated, the engineer can now click the appropriate button once to induce the braking. All we need to do is to push the appropriate button to initiate the brake applications. 

Remember that the train will always be in charged, or in near charged condition. This system will no longer need a "brake line pressure reduction" in order to apply the braking. With this configuration we can keep the air up in constant charge. If brakes are applied, or released, the acting tank will always be full or nearly fully charged.

The intent:

To calibrate the brake’s in an individual manner.

To greatly reduce "wheel skid". Therefore preventing, or reducing "flat spots"

To allow maximum braking, with out of wheel and track damage. The track bounce, a possible cause for derailments and rail brakeage.

To greatly increase stooping efficiency, (stooping time, and distance reduction)

Savings from wheel and track damage should help to pay for the said above upgrade.

- - - - - - - - -

Grade Crossing at Signaled Passages

Now we have another crash. This time on a signaled track crossing. On the IC line. It is obvious, that we have a trespassing condition.

What shall we do?

LASER BEAM UTILIZATION  (L.A.S.E.R.)

Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. How about installing laser beams in X format, or perhaps X by boxed layout. In the X by box layout we may be able to use retro reflectors, therefore reducing the cost of the second laser beam emitter. This would be as follows. Say the road crossing will be from the east to the west and the track will run north - south. Then we would install one laser beam at the east right hand side and shoot the beam in a diagonal manner to the receiver side on the west left hand side. The second beam will be shot to from the east left hand side to the receiving west right hand side. The receivers will be connected to a relay box. The relay box has the ability to switch the incoming laser beam signals to a low watt radio frequency. This designated (for the Railroads only) radio signal will then travel to the oncoming locomotive. The locomotive will have the portable alarm receiver unit. (PARU)The reason for laser beam utilization is as to hopefully penetrate heavy snow squalls, as well as thick fog or torrential rain. Please conduct the appropriate research. We do not want to induce an emergency braking due to snowfall fog etc. Virtually we would use the rugged helium-neon lasers. The laser beam would be of low output, this is in consideration of the eyes we do not want a burned eye retina. THE LASER BEAM ELEVATIONS I would suggest a two - elevation application. The first level would be at 3 feet above the highest point of the crossing and the second elevation would be at the 5-foot level. The 3 feet above ground beam will not detect dogs or cats and also accumulated snow. However we may want to detect a straying child, especially in town's and cities. In towns and cities, (unless designated lines) the trains will run at reduced speeds any way.

THE FUNCTION IS AS FOLLOWS:

As soon as a train arrives, and the crossing signal will (electrically activated) flash then the laser beams and radio signal will be activated as well. However as long as the laser beam remains uninterrupted to the electronic receivers, detectors or (control box) the radio transmitter will be deactivated, or remain in the standby mode. Now, as long as the crossing is clear of any trespasser or stuck object, then the laser beam is in effect continuous (closed circuit). The closed circuits will deactivate the radio transmission signal. However if we have a trespasser, or a stuck object then the laser beam will be broken (open circuit) this open circuit will now immediately activate the radio signal and send the radio signal to the oncoming locomotive. The locomotive will have a portable radio alarm receiver unit, (PARU).

If we have a trespasser, then the alarm will sound and the locomotive engineer can take the appropriate steps. In a quiet zone, the engineer may still blow the train horn, (emergency application) any early warning will help, maybe not to completely annul a crash, but at least a drastic reduction of a disaster. (Pre speed reduction) The training for the locomotive engineer can be facilitated. How greater the speed, how greater the pre warning distance will be required. An automatic distance approach apparatus, depending on the arriving train speed may also be implemented. The reason for portable alarm receiver units  (PARU) is to save money on equipping the locomotives. Only the lead (Controlling) Locomotive will need this (carry on) devise, and only the assigned trains would get the PARU, a "slow poke" may not need this devise, at least not at the beginning. The reason for the X, or X box configuration is to catch the trespasser in any situation or position. The only way other would be a single person walking across a closed crossing and then dead in the center of the (X only) but crossing the X will still trip the alarm. It is unlikely, that a person will walk across a closed crossing in rural territory. Vehicular traffic however will exist. In rural territory the trains also will run "at speed".  

Additionally, we may also outfit the lead locomotive with a video camera. This camera would also be activated at a time of alarm. The camera would oscillate from right to left and so on - - - The film taken may now be a proof for the railroad and protect the railroad and the crew from possible law suites. In addition the trespasser may be found. Trespassing would result in stiff fines, as well as mandatory class assignments. The classes would include films of crossing disasters and of course verbal and written documentation as of the dangers and its consequences. Fine fee money would go to the local authority and to the operating railroads. As people get the awareness of the possible detection of a trespass, then they may become much more concerned. (The deterrent).

The ordinary folks will not know if a locomotive has a video camera on board or not.

Explanation to the CAD schematic:

In order to reduce accidents between signal overriding vehicles, such as fire trucks and trains, I have come up with the following possible solution.

The regular signal switch will change the normal traffic signal lights. As a fire truck approaches signals, the signals can and will now be changed to green for the crossing clearance of the fire truck. In the case of rail crossings however we got a problem due to the stopping distance and the time requirement by trains. Therefore we need an additional over the first override - override switch.

Now and in case as a train enters the roadway approach zone the automatic train second override - override will be activated. This signal will again close the roadway for road traffic and allow the train the right of way. During this time the override - override signal will also activate the new and additional fourth strobe light. This signal light is an additional indications device to announce the track occupancy by trains.

@ 25 mph a train will travel 2200' per min or 366.6' in 10 sec. therefore a minimum of 400' of approach override zone is required to allow sufficient traffic light change. However, if train speed is higher then the approach zone will need lengthening as well or can be shortened by lower than 25 mph train speed.

This proposal may especially be suitable for areas with blind spots due to buildings or vegetation since no additional eyesight by train operator or fire truck driver is possible for proper operational reaction.

Layer 1 = train occupied approach; currant street signal is set to red, then fire truck signal changed to green, then again road signal changed to red by the automatic train approach override plus by the additional red strobe light. This will allow the right off way for trains.

Layer 2 = train free approach; currant street signal is set to red, the fire truck signal to green, and road signal to green again. This will set the open and safe passage for the emergency vehicles, like fire trucks, ambulance, and police!

Rudy Niederer                                       03/04/2005

In order to reduce accidents between signal overriding vehicles, such as fire trucks and trains, I have come up with the following possible solution.

The regular signal switch will change the normal traffic signal lights.

As a fire truck approaches signals, the signals can and will now be changed to green for the crossing clearance of the fire truck. In the case of rail crossings however we got a problem due to the stopping distance and the time requirement by trains. Therefore we need an additional over the first override - override switch.

Now and in case as a train enters the roadway approach zone the automatic train second override - override will be activated. This signal will again close the roadway for road traffic and allow the train the right of way. During this time the override - override signal will also activate the new and additional fourth strobe light. This signal light is an additional indications device to announce the track occupancy by trains.

@ 25 mph a train will travel 2200' per min or 366.6' in 10 sec. therefore a minimum of 400' of approach override zone is required to allow sufficient traffic light change. However, if train speed is higher then the approach zone will need lengthening as well or can be shortened by lower than 25 mph train speed.

This proposal may especially be suitable for areas with blind spots due to buildings or vegetation since no additional eyesight by train operator or fire truck driver is possible for proper operational reaction.

Layer 1 = train occupied approach; currant street signal is set to red, then fire truck signal changed to green, then again road signal changed to red by the automatic train approach override plus by the additional red strobe light. This will allow the right off way for trains.

Layer 2 = train free approach; currant street signal is set to red, the fire truck signal to green, and road signal to green again. This will set the open and safe passage for the emergency vehicles, like fire trucks, ambulance, and police!

Rudy Niederer                                       03/04/2005

 

 GPS signal relay for transfer seek to connecting Buses>      

Because of frequent near misses of connections at transfer locations I have come up with the following solution.

Let us develop a GPS signal territory according to sketch.

In this sketched case, Bus # 81 has one - or more passengers which need a connection to Bus line # 20. The Bus # 81 is now within the 200 meter radius of signal design influence and can therefore send the alert signal to the # 20 Bus which is also in the territory.

Once the respective Buses reach the predestinated GPS territory, then the numbers of the respective Buses in the vicinity will light up at the console. The console light at the home Bus # will be in red and always constantly lit, the other Buses inside the design territory will be lit in blue and pointing out the other Buses # in the territory. The blue Bus # light-s will also be constant if there is no transfer seek - not blinking. See sheet # one.

Transfer requested:

Now, and in this case the Bus # 81 has a transfer seek, so the driver of the Bus # 81 will push the blue button (none lit) for the wanted connection Bus # 20. The button will now lighting up in red (sheet two in this explanation).  Once the blue button above the solid blue light (not blinking) # 20 is pushed, then the continuous signal will interrupt to the # 20 Bus and will now blink as # 81 in the # 20 Bus. The Bus driver in the # 20 Bus will now see that Bus # 81 has a transfer passenger and will therefore wait momentarily, the swift, passenger satisfying connection is now achieved. The console is designed to point out up to 5 Buses aside the home Bus. Blinking lights could be expanded for acoustic warning.

Once the Buses leave the named GPS territory radius, then the blue signal - s on the console will go blank, the red, direct powered for sending home Bus # however will remain light. Also, this design is only meant to work wile Buses are in the close proximity so as not to waste route time.

Designed at 10/09/2006 by

Rudy Niederer

 

 

THE FINANCIAL ASPECT

The writer of HART-BEAT often ponders about this particular issue. The questions are, can we save moneys - capital by the utilization of such proposals? What are the total costs of a rail crossing accident? Human suffering - destruction of equipment - destruction of infrastructure - time losses due to a closed line - law suits - possible environmental contamination - bad public relation image. "It's always the railroads". The intent of the writer is to hopefully reduce the above said accidents, preserve the capital and or utilize that money to install the advanced equipment and devises, and - yes to increase the "PR".

THE ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECT

Our people need to be educated about the difference between rail and hard surface roads. The difference between the disposal costs railcars vs. highway motor vehicles. The difference between the environmental conditions and its impact's.

Runoffs during a rainstorm are less on a rail line with ballast, (the crushed rocks under the tracks). Hard surface roads will have greater amounts of runoffs and in addition more contaminants - example road oil oils and other fluids from motor vehicles plus salts in the wintertime.  The salts and oils will become groundwater contaminants. In addition the salts and oils have an adverse effect on road surfaces.  The rail lines do not require salting in the winter's snow and ice conditions. This is therefore a greater state of friendliness to the environment. The construction of a rail line does not require road oil, such as a blacktop road does. The trains don’t leak as much oil and fluids as the multi motor vehicles do.

A well-designed rail line will require less energy to move a tone of goods plus we can apply an energy-recycling concept such as said above. The maintenance is easier for a rail line vs. a hard surface roadway and less energy intense. The deterioration factor is considerably lower for ballast vs. the hard surface roads.  The recycling of derelict rail cars (no multi components) is generating lesser pollution than roadway motor vehicles. Motor vehicles have rubber tires, plastic components and many other incorporated items. Rail cars do not require new rubber tire's, a solid waste problem. The shavings produced during a maintenance rail wheel turning are readably recyclable. Rubber tires create a far greater problem both in the disposal and in the production phase, they are also much more energy demanding.

A healthy, well-designed transit is an asset to our nation and not a handicap. The so constructed, for modern times lines may now become superior over the hard surface highways and attracting additional traffic or business. This will therefore be the lifeblood of a nation.

Highways do not replace railroads - we must regularly incorporate new universal physical principles. 

Rudy