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Hydro Power

                                                                                                                                 

     This Turbine is for low head, but good flow  - or run of the River applications.                                                                                                                      Micro Hydro Power, Alternative Energy using Water

                                                                            

    'o kahawai e ka waiele

                         What, a river or a waterfall?

Alternative choices to provide power for the light-rail is by hydropower generation. I have not addressed this at this point, as that would be another chapter but the potential exists! Hydropower allows quick control for rapid power adjustments, and instant power production is possible with water powered turbines. 1991

Let me address this now - 1999

Dams and Reservoirs of diverse kinds built throughout the years did not receive consideration to river follows.

Sedimentation

We must know; erecting a barrier in to any natural stream flow is intruding in to the natural environmental characteristic, impeding not only flows of the water; but also the flow of sediments. Sediment ingredients are, silt, sand, gravel, stones, boulders. Reasons to consider are; migrating nutrients, specific magnetic particles, microorganisms, and water temperature disruptions. 

Solution to this concern may be as follows:

Let us build a cofferdam upstream of the reservoir with a by pass with - a canal - a tunnel - or a pipeline. This now formed cofferdam will now be able to redirect (with maximum flow during a flood stage) water and sediment units to the stream below of the dam stream basin. Thus we will now refill some of the sediments to the stream below the dam side, sediment free water will not pass over a spillway. Therefore we will experience also a lesser erosion problem in the downstream region, meaning we let nature transport the sediment in a natural way downstream.

If only clean, sediment free spillway water will flow below a dam, then we will experience an excavation. This excavation will in fact cause an advancement of side or stream bank erosions. Deepening a streambed will cause said problems, however, reintroducing sediments in to the streambeds bellow a dam will in effect reduce the erosion condition.

To some extent, the natural nutrients, microorganisms, specific magnetic particles will therefore continue one its journey. Answer hindering natural refilling of river bottoms, important sediments, nutrients and particles so they reach the ocean, restore needs for feedstock and orientation for fish navigations. Interestingly, this feedstock will occasionally slide of the coastal shelf those transporting nutrients to the even deeper zones in the ocean.  

Water temperature changes may also be of a lesser extent and so is water density. The combinations of all this have an influence to the total health of any streambed and the final destination point.

The gates to control the bypass flow would be of the drum gate type. The drum gate will always open on the bottom side (stream floor) therefore allowing the passage of the sediments.  Gate control is by computerized remote command with radio signal for correct calculations on water - sediments we would like to divert. For the Fish migrations see below.

An extra benefit to this idea: Sedimentation buildup decrease in the impoundment area of the reservoir therefore expanding the life expectancy. Any reservoir, filled up with sediments will no longer be able to store the, by intent floodwaters and finally, the by sediment filled reservoir will no longer fulfill its purpose.

Sediment removal in existing dams:

Install an artery like pipe network in the reservoirs basin with the large main line and the smaller branch lines. Main line and branch line will have 1/2"> holes spaced @ every alternating 2m and on each side, locate the entrance holes at the 4 and 8 o'clock orientations. Calculate the total areas of the holes to correctly size the main and branch line pipe diameter. Discharge the effluent below the dam, install shutoff valve below the dam to control flow time and volume. Sometimes we may use this sediment water for irrigation on downstream lands. The nutrient bearing sediment may benefit irrigated agricultural land.

No base artery sketch is available for this layout at this time. For more information, see below.

                                                  

Do you think you can have a Dish?

A dish with Fish!

Or can you only wish?

So lets be Wise

And think but Twice

Lets preserve and be Enticed

Floating Fish bypass Canal installed in to existing Reservoirs.

Alternative to the land based bypass canal application is to install the sketched floating Canal insert. The, from recycled plastic produced bypass will allow the Fish migration to and from the points of origin to migrate unhindered to their destination.

The sketched cross sectional twin hull design will reduce the side oscillation and should therefore not frighten migrating fish stock due to excess rocking motions at the graveled base.

The intent is to create the pleasant and safe migration route for the Fish, both in the upstream and downstream direction.

Gravel bedded base is to reproduce the natural setting for the traveling Fish. The encompassing sides host the earth filled banks with small shrubbery to provide some shade and the natural look.

This floating Canal will meet short based land areas were Boat and other access to the Reservoir is required.

Alternative to bisect land areas for ramp access is to build artificial islands with rock and native materials from the vicinity. Bridge the bypass canal to gain access to the boat ramp. Plant the island with vegetation and trees to provide wild live refuge; this will create shared benefits for man and beast!

 The general boundaries of this floating bypass will be anchored near the appointed shorelines of existing reservoirs.

This Canal setup will need little extra land takeover, therefore offsetting construction costs.

Reinforcement ribbing, connecting segments and section lengths are not shown. Anchor points and other details are not shown.

Note the sediment artery network on the bottom of the reservoir, the smaller piper will intersect to the larger main pipe. The main pipe will drain to the below side of the given dam. The grid layout is not shown.

Connect the buoy via the stainless steel cable (SS) to the mud-sediment drain pipe. Space the buoys @ every >100m< or so. Allow ample slack in the SS cable for periodical uptake of the pipe network. The uptake will allow us to easy relocate the mud drain pipe in to other adjacent territory in order to excavate mud-sediment from the reservoirs bottom. For maintenance shake uplifted pipes to unclog the intake openings.

Install buoy weights to the SS cables at proper elevations in order to keep the SS cable in the plum position. Passing ships will shove the buoys to the side, but the still vertically oriented SS cable will not get tangled in the ships screw.  

x

Typical Examples

The Aswan Dam: The Nile's river mouth is eroding rapidly; sand and silt transport to the lower part in the Nile delta has stopped.

Dammed rivers in the Swiss Alps suffer to some extent restocking sand and gravel, harvesting sand and gravel in riverbeds is hastening the problem. To lower the streams sand and gravel base may cause bridge pier undermining, and causing a bridge failure.

The Yangtze River (yellow river project) in China will experience the same, you will see. (ops, will they listen)

http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2005-08/01/content_465310.htm

Other Places suffer identical problems or condition including USA projects.

The Pros of Damming

Not all damming is bad; there are surely great benefits achievable by building dams. Like massive flood controls, irrigation water provision, water for home and industries, electrical generation - the greenhouse gas free energy in all phases. Sharing of recreation areas for people and to some extent also an added place for wildlife.

http://earthguide.ucsd.edu/earthguide/diagrams/greenhouse/

The Design

The design of a layout can be harmful to the outcome of the whole. The proposed bypass will cost money, yes but we should not just take and be thoughtless. If we incorporate such subsystems, then we have started to work with nature. This will benefit every one.

Pumped Storage

In some areas we may elect pumped water storage for hydroelectric production. This is especially so if we have wind turbine generation. During over production from wind power we will then pump water fro a lower reservoir to the higher laying reservoir for storage. During peek demand we can the use this stored water and generate hydro power again.

Pumped Storage     Note: Elevation Difference      Pumped Resrevoir

 The Fish migration

If we have a fish migration, such as Salmons, then we may need a continuing "bypass". Again this would be a construction of a cofferdam and the proposed - preferably canal - tunnel - or the pipeline bypass. The main intent to this arrangement is to allow the migrating fish to pass the obstructive dams as much as possible. The mouth of the bypass would be just a short distance upstream from the cofferdam.

At the cofferdam we may be able to install an electric fence or sonar devise as a deterrent for the "minnows" or "fingerlings" from passing over the dam and in to the reservoir. Stock the reservoir by other fashion for fish in the pond. Migrating fish from upstream or downstream will now take the direct passage by means of the bypass.

The bypass will need a construction in an environmentally adaptable way. This will mean we cannot just use plain concrete as we use in the Colombia Watershed, but we need to line the artificial bypass with native rocks from the surrounding area. This now looking nature alike bypass will not frighten the fish, meaning to be foreign to them. Besides this bypass we will also have incorporated small waterfalls or rapids and of course also flat runs. There we will also find sediments at least at one side of the bank, trees with overhanging and shading branches and other possible greenery to provide aerial shade and some pray protection. This shading of the bypass will help to reduce water temperature rise and reduce oxygen depletion since the water is flowing in the more direct manner down stream. Reservoir stored water will absorb more of sun radiation and therefore increase the overall water temperature, increasing oxygen depletion and promote algae growth, also the more negative biological effect.

The current fish ladders are faulty to say the least, they do not have "undercuts" - the upstream travelers cannot find a place for rest. Artificial concrete, gray in color and therefore foreign to the surrounding area is hostile to the migrating fish; in addition the current fish ladder will end in to the reservoir. We must consider nature as much as possible. The current decrease (regular stream flow speed) in a reservoir may confuse the fish such as direction of travel. Water temperature gradient disruption may only help in disrupting the natural condition; the migrating fish is micro temperature sensitive. The fish may also use, [shall we call the treasure finding tool] this can detect the magnetic field changes which will allow them to navigate. We human beings use the compass, however the compass is only a makeshift devise. Nature is far smarter than man in it's crowning designs of the workings.

To model such a layout will need some land base, but the believe of the writer is, that this with consideration of the whole will be favorable to man and beast.

          Aloha ka manini me ka põpolo, he i'a noho ia ka laupapa

         Greetings to fish and herb, you can now live some place by stone and reef

             Natural fish bypass stair, designed in Switzerland by Swiss engineers.

                                    x

Sediment source reduction:

Erosion reduction and sediment transport control in the head water region in the Swiss alps, note the usage of regional and native construction materials.

Install similar layouts in regions with less terrain slope. Design the terraces to reduce the overall drop of the creek or streambed to<5 mill> or so. The now reduced stream flow pace will also reduce the side erosions as well as the creek beds deepening of the streambed in the given areas; therefore lessen the sediment transport even more. Terraced streams will reduce storm flow side erosion. Sloped side bank vegetation will be saved and therefore continue providing shade to the waters flow. Shaded stream banks lessen the water temperature rise in the stream benefiting aquatic live and oxygen value.

More solutions - go to the construction page -http://www.lightrail-hartbeat.com/Construction_09.htm

                                                        Designed by Swiss engineers.

x            x             x

   We can not just take, but we must share generated wealth with nature as well.

 

 

Ocean Wave Generator

Des. by R.N. 06/01/2007

This machine is designed for all position applications.

Rotations are clock wise and counter clock wise, to keep the polarity positive - positive

we need the automatic brush switching at the commuter.

The open area is 3 times of the blade area, this will allow the absorption of the wave mass force.

Fish passage is possible with this design.

Concrete base pan to keep sand in place is not shown.

(cross sectional view)

DC voltage will flow to a battery bank and then converted to synchronized  AC

(axial view)

Planetary gear rotational speed up step is 9x or 18x due to the respective counter revolution

during the rotations.

See more information by Hatfield Marine Science Center Newport OR

http://hmsc.oregonstate.edu/waveenergy/