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HART-BEAT Line

Construction

Tracks in to the future for our_2.pptx

10 Safety

12 Taxation

HART-BEAT pptx07/HART-BEAT_2007 pptx.pptx

14 Poetry

O A H U OK-Line pptx. 07_02.pptx

The Construction of the Line

Computer Controll Station

Computers

The utilization of Computer systems with its appropriate software will be essential. The importance is, to link with the various Agencies. Consultants - Contractors - Field construction Offices and possible the material Suppliers as well.

Software and Systems:

(WAN) - (LAN) Wide Area Network - Local Area Network

(CUT)    Computer-based training for diverse applications

(CCS)   Change Control Systems

(ACCESS)  Advanced Cost Control Systems

(MIS)   Management Information System

(IMP)   Integrated Project Management

(COM)   Critical Path Method

(PERT)  Project Evaluation & Review Technique

(CADD)  Computer Assisted Design and Drafting

This

Traffic     So Smelly

                    O ka mea hea ka maikai keia a o kela paha?          

                       Which is the better, This or That?

Or That?

Train       So Clean

The Right of the Way  

Since hurricane Iniki, with its devastating destruction, we should consider, getting the right-of-way now. Therefore no renewing or rebuilding should take place around the proposed HART-BEAT line. This saves capital, as we do not have to remove built buildings again to make room for the lines. Reserve the right-of-way for a double-track layout to allow for later expansion.  

The Tunnels  

Crush and sort tailings from the tunneling and use that for rail ballast and concrete aggregate. Draw more needed ballast from the Kauai quarry therefore using our own available material, while using our own, we gain at all ends. First, there are no high material buying cost; second, there are low transport costs; and third, people living here can contribute in the production. Since ballast is at the bottom in the production chain, energy use is low and thus cost-effective. Ballast needs to be satisfactory here in Hawaii because of the hydraulic force in the lava ash soil, the need is to have a safe and durable rail line. Protect low laying tunnels with steel doors and close them during tsunami alerts and park rolling stock in higher elevations.

Other benefits of tunnels are to save open and or commercial land plus traffic noise decreases, also use the expensive land twice.

For todays tunneling abilities, please click below. 

http://www.alptransit.ch/index.htm

 Tunnels and Tunnel Boring Machine

 TBM

De-Duster 

During tunnel construction we may find unacceptable concentrations of silicon dust creating excessive heath hazards as well as excess heath.

The sketch below will remove some of the excesses, collect the dust in to mud slurries and heat decline is because of the hydronic influence.

Water table control is by the float valve those allowing the exit of the amassed sludge. Direct sludge flow in to the settlement ponds to settle the mud, water will then return to the tunnel, also the closed loop cycle.  In other dust scrubbing application such as iron dust may be removed and recycled for further use. Intent of this idea is to provide healthy breathing air in the finished tunnels and subways. 

 

 

TBM modified with continues core sampling attachment, CAD drawing Des by R.N.

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Reinforcement for fragile rock in Sedruns tunnel.

Drill pinholes to 150Ø mm> @ 20º ± depending on the tilt and cleft orientation of the rock.  Allow this sloped pin layout to advance in this direction to penetrate in to the rock overburden zone ahead of the; to be excavated tunnel. Advance the holes around 14 m in to the plastic zone, the not to be excavated rock massive. Note the crisscross application of the pin borehole layout; this crisscrossing will create a quasi-net grid. This net lattice will now produce a flow hindrance for fractured and sliding rock wedges.

Drill the holes similar as in the core drilling method including casings if need to be. Once the total length is reached we will then insert preassembled rebar columns and then grout the hole. During the grouting we will pull the sectioned casing back out again. The rebar and the grout will set in the provided porcupine (Stachelschwein) like pin system. The dotted line, or the area of the; to be excavated tunnel will not be pin reinforced and grouted. The total length of the advancing pinhole is about 20m and the rock massive length is 13.5 m or so; adjusts depth as needed. This will give us all ways the double pin overlap of the following tunnel excavation therefore increasing the overburden bearing capacity. Tunnel advance may be 6 to 7 m per drift.

I think there is room to run 2 or even 3 core machines at a given time. If the rock is that soft we should be able to excavate the holes by the auger application. The conventional core pipe with the cutter crown may not be needed. I don’t know the type of the rock, but probably calcite I am not there to see! As it sounds, this tunnel segment must also be fractured, therefore the recommendation of the pin inserts. We should be able to drill and grout the 15 pinholes in the 24 Hr rotation shifts. The casings will be shortcut, 1 m>, this is as for easy handling there off. Mild directional degree offsets will be tolerated.

If we meet strong rock sheer pressure then we may want to increase the pin diameter, but I think the 150 mm> size will do. Apply all other gunite and steel arch linings as needed. The start point of the pin will interconnect with the first reinforced gunite shell, creating the chair support. (spritz betoniere das Stachelschwein mit zusätzlicher überkreuzten stacheln, danach aushöhlen und sehe es hält, die haut ist der Stachel' träger)  This pin application is meant to provide extra long-term strengthening in this troublesome zone, establishing the reaction stoppage. Please note; this pin crisscross work is installed ahead of the actual excavation progress, hence the reaction freezing in the rock mass or plastic reaction zone.

Here again we must consider the dynamics of the mountain, the thermal temperature reductions in the vicinity of the new tunnel shafts creating coefficient rock shrink. The shift of the rock layers due to the loss of the native counter reaction resistance, the hydrolysis and the hydrothermal actions, water content and mineral leaching. Also consider the integrated gas actions, the counter reactor in the general internal flow activities. 

Rudy

06/17/2006    Drawing below is CAD - numbers are in meters and as an example only

 

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The Dams  

The dams or ponds would work as a storm runoff accumulator catch basin with flow controlled outlets to hold the storm water in check and then release the water in controlled manners over several hours, or perhaps days.

The outlet flow control (smaller pipe) will reduce normal storm flooding that is cubic yard, or cubic feet, by second or minute downstream. The dual pipe outlets have two elevations, the lower one is of a smaller size the higher is the large diameter pipe. The higher, large diameter down-pipe is for emergency overflow purposes only, the theoretical 100-year plus storms. The ponds work as reservoirs, therefore achieving the dual-purpose of water storage and the controlled flow outlet. The overflow is to help a 100-year rainstorm with safety margin. Provide the down-pipes with an eddy control to increase capacity. An eddy control is a vertical wall across the center of the down-pipe, shown as dotted line in the sketch. The down pipes will also have a 45-degree intake and exit slope with an encompassing debris diversion collar at the intake side.

The sloped exit pipe in the bottom of the dike will also need some square baffle bumpers on the outside culvert part. This baffle attachment (not shown on the drawing) will prevent slippage or creep inside the dam and reduce weakening of the dam by preventing leakage along outside the drain pipe.

The intent for the debris collar is to hinder floating debris from storms clogging the down pipes. ( Apply this application at each down pipe.) In addition, the dams would also provide a pond with silt-settling space, thus benefiting the coral reefs by reducing mudding or silt transport to the coral reefs. Also such construction will work as flood and mud control for flood prone residential areas. Design the holding dam capacity large enough to hold the expected water onrush. Excavate silt build-up during extreme dry spells to rid the silt mass. Sell such excavation material top soil to certain buyers.

The area between the down pipe and the collar must be at least 25% larger (>) than the area of the down pipe itself. This is because of the upwelling affect in the exit flow pattern of the water (change of flow direction). Also during a full flow in the down pipe we will experience the siphon effect, meaning an increase of the speed, therefore increasing the volumetric capacity. Also the updraft speed should be held at a moderate number, this is so as not to suck debris in to the drain by the bottom inlet of the debris diversion collar. Floatable driftwood must stay outside the collar and will therefore not become a troublemaker, plugging the down pipe.  See graphic illustrations below!

One more benefit aside the use for agriculture of the ponds is for cattle, irrigation and wildlife; that is a water supply location during a dry spell with no stream flow. The dams have no spillway with this (down pipe) storage pond. We also must take in to account that we will experience drought times as well and then we need the reservoirs to prevent some other disaster. Earthen spillways can experience disastrous wash-outs; however they may still be used as for extreme and or other unforeseen situations with correct detour routings.

Electing one or the other depends on the geographical location and its backcountry (area of the collection territory) but I would recommend the down pipe over the spillways, also prevent dams to overflows and dam breaks.

Here I must also say; we as a people (the people of Kauai in this case) must learn to get along with one and one other and live in harmony and plan in accordance.   Also in Hawaiian, ekahi o na mea a pau - ho' olãlã  o lokãhi - na mea a pau o ekahi.  Or in latin, onus fatus allatus -  planus unitas - allatus fatus onus.

Flood warning system incorporated:

Outfit the holding ponds with water table elevation gauges with electronic sending capacities. Send the signals to the central flood watch station (civic defense).  Flood watch centers will then work in tandem and integrated with civic warning and protection. Power the sending units at the dams by battery over solar charging units and setup testing to provide reliability and remote surveying of the battery status. Because this application is to protect; should there anything ever go wrong with the drain, then at least we will have warnings.

Below is an example CAD drawing, explaining the idea (top view). The inside down pipe Ø is 4'   The Ø of the outside debris diversion collar is 6' 

The total area is 28.27' ² nominal. The area of the down pipe is 12,56' ²  The area between the diversion collar and the down pipe is    15.83' ² Also the <25%> increase of the area between the down pipe and the diversion collar. Spacing the anchoring baffle plates to mount the debris diversion collar to the down pipe is at 120˚ as shown. The height of the debris collar is not shown, but it should immerse a minimum of 4 feet and extrude 6' to 8' above the high point of the diagonally cut down pipe. Again, we must prevent floating debris from entering the drain.

Calculate the sizing of the drain according to the respective collection territory and will therefore vary ±

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  i kêia mua aku - ike anei oe i kau mea e hana hou aku ai!

                       (in the future - you know what to do next!)

Below is the original  concept, conceived in the 60's

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 The Mouth of a Pond

At the mouth of a pond we may want to install a debris rake to catch driftwood. Build the debris rake would with boulders as not to intrude into the environment too much. Allow proper spacing between boulders is to let water through but catch the driftwood; driftwood can cause a problem at the down pipes. Connect boulders with one another with grade 60 steel bars to hold them in place. Grade 60 is for both strength and corrosion resistance. We also could use old and derelict rails from the railroads to do the job. The erected shape would be of a semi-arch to resist head pressure once loading of the rake occurs. Rake installation will not cancel the down pipe with a collar.

Maintenance of a Pond

Ever so often we need maintenance within the ponds. Overtime sediments such as silt, gravel and mud will heap which need periodical removal. To remove the sediments we will then pump the pond dry and in addition catch the clean stream water at the mouth and bypass such flows to the below side in to the existing streambed. Then we will re-excavate the ponds bottom and deposit such material to the outside slope of the currant dam and replant them with vegetation to reduce erosions. Overtime the dams will become thicker and stronger. To keep the dam dry we may also install cross horizontal drainage pipes with outward exits surveying them for possible dam leakage after the original dam construction. We must keep the embankment as dry as possible and prevent any liquidification of the fill. On the inside side of such earthen dams we may also want to install an impermeable geo-shield, such a shield will therefore reduce water intrusion in to the embankment and therefore preserve its integrity. There is also a product by Pol-E-Flake which we may be able to use to seal the inside off earthen dams, or we could use cellophane flake incorporated in the waterside slope area.

  Erosion Control

The erosion control would work in the following manner, rain washed away mud silt or topsoil is a loss that any given region suffers. Built brims will address this problem since they work as a mini-catch basin. Raised outlets at 1' plus and spaced at     20' ± will drain the collected storm water to the fields below, the heavier mud particles will settle out and stay behind. Outlets need to be of equal elevation in a given section, also, layouts need to be horizontal and outlets must be lower than the crown of the embankment. Sectional L-shaped side embankments are set up for proper functioning in certain geographical-topographical areas. During the runoff period the water has first to reach the raised outlets before drainage takes place. Meanwhile, the mud and silt has now time to settle out in the rear area, therefore reducing mud and silt transport to the ocean. Bulldoze the gathered sediments backup in the field to allow new sediment space again, succeeding to save valuable topsoil.

Accumulated water in the rear will seep in to the ground and replenish ground water tables and in turn provide clean stream flows.

In addition the brims may be covered by a vegetation protector such as TERM cloth available by www.nagreen.com

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  The Embankments

Designed embankments are of dual-purpose, also to carry the trains and work as erosion control wherever geographically possible, see details above.

  The Controlled Flooding

Because of the damming of rivers [levees] in the past we have essentially created one other problem. This restricting of the waters flow with its sediments can lead to disastrous events.

Solutions:

During a severe flood we can expect uncontrollable dam breaks, such breaks can be damaging in the affected area. Mississippi-Missouri central is an example; other places in the world may probably experience identical problems.

Prevent such happenings via the pictured proposal. We will build drum gate outlets along the given stretches of the dike river runs.  During extreme floods we can then open the drum gates on the bottom section of the dams. This controlled opening will then allow some of the muddy, sediment caring, floodwaters to escape the swollen river and flood the nearby plains.

Since we do not have a dam break we can now control the flooding to the plains (water table elevation) left and right side of the embankment.  We can calculate the temporary added water placement to the plains according to y³ or acre-foot. Since we will now be able to dispense the excess in the controlled manner we can then in effect unload the threatening river condition and prevent the disaster of an uncontrolled dam break.

During such an emergency relieve action we will now also allow mud, the natural sediment transport to flow in to the plains and create new deposits, raising the existing ground elevation of the given terrain. Stones and gravel however will not be dispelled in to the plains since they normally flow in the lower section of the river channel.

The result of this application will benefit the fields of the receiving planes since the collected mud will raise the land and even contribute new nutrients carried by the floodwaters. The flush out of amassed and damaging salts will occur, temporary flooding of up to 6" to 10" - 15 to 25 cm will not hurt the vegetation. For Farmhouses we can install collar dikes to protect the low-lying homes during this temporary controlled floodwater relieve application.

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Building Protection

Floodplain Houses and Farm Building should be raised - elevated to the above maximum floodwater table. To do such for existing buildings we can use dredge material from the river which we will pipe to the particular area. First, jack the buildings to the needed height, then provide a temporary border dike and then fill the pond with the dredge material. Let the material dry out and then reset the buildings. The other option is to provide an elevated plateau beforehand and then move the buildings to the new location.

No permits for new buildings, homes or farm will be issued unless they are on raised ground. We don't have the money anymore to endlessly rebuild flood damage.

The Trench Cuts

Plant the trench cuts with low maintenance vegetation to reduce erosion and cover the marring. Pressure-controlled irrigation water would come from the effluent pipe installed along the HART-BEAT line. Covering trenches at a later time for construction of commercial buildings is possible, electric powered trains will not need frequent ventilation.

The Bridges

Design bridges for extra usefulness, such as pockets to contain diverse plants which would hide the bareness and lessen the visual environmental impact and increase homes for wildlife. Keep in mind that railroad bridges have other design conditions than the highway bridges have, an example is centrifugal force.

To lessen cost of so many bridges, we may be able to use a modular design where the six shorter bridges and the six longer bridges would use similar designs. Use standardized prefabricated HPC (high performance concrete) pieces to speed up the bridge building. Use prefab narrow wall concrete pipes, they will then work as concrete forms, but will stay in place in one unit after the concrete placing. Slip and plumb the pipes over the anchored foundation's LPL epoxy coated reinforcing bars and advance upwards. Add more vertical reinforcing bars with ties then pipe again and so on until the top. Pouring accelerated concrete as we go. We will be able to pour one pear column a day, depending on the total height there off. Material delivery is via the catenary cable works. Use LPL (long pot live) epoxy binder on any concrete cold joints. Ground assemble the spiral encased re-bar segments, then transport them by the catenary to the installation location.

The mass-produced pipes would cut out the expensive and time-consuming formwork. Pump the plasticized (a water reducer) concrete to fill the pipes, canceling cold joints because of this proposed setup.

Catenary Peer Bridge

For the graceful arch design, if so is chosen, then we will use two or tree prefabricated arched slices. Hinge the catenary towers, one on each side at the bottom to allow lateral sway. String cables similar to the Golden Gate Bridge, catenaries will speedup construction and they simply move to the next bridge application.

Installation of the prefabricated arch sections is easy via the Catenary. The advancement is simultaneous to counterbalance the load stresses. Seismic risks are zero for Kauai. Use the now bottom swivel base anchored towers also for the temporary supports for the arch construction, cable hold back.

Catenary Bridge

 

The Bridge Deck Modification 

To reduce shock transmission from the passing trains with ties and ballast to the bridge deck we may want to coat the bridge deck with a layer of shredded old tires.  Place this shredded material with an adhesive binder to prevent the gradual escape or creep away from the chosen base, the thickness of this rubberized bed would be about 3 to 4 inches. As speeds will increase, so will the impacts on the substructures, therefore the need to solve the problem. Such will also allow us to use concrete ties in the bridge deck area and perhaps increase bridge deck life.

In addition; preventing water penetration to the concrete will help reduce certain calcinations and corrosive rebar attacks.

Bridge Abutment Modified  

This short draft (Schematic only) shows the changed bridge abutment. The intent was to reduce or even cut out the eddy currents created during "high water", rounding the abutment does this well. During high water, there is only a gradual restriction and then again a gradual deflection, no eddies are occurring with this form. So, there is a far lesser possibility for the dreaded bridge washouts, I have built a farm bridge just as sketched. The post-stressed deck is concrete and not shown on this draft. The capacity is 40 tons, the length is 40 feet, and the width is 16 feet. We had several floods since 1976 with no problems. In 1976 the township lost 7 bridges during a severe downpour; all the bridges had the standard, angular abutment shapes, this prompted me to "redesign" the rounded form. Also please note the setback of the pilings, the bridge carriers. The resultant = a far lesser washout potential.

Abutment tunnels:

In order to accommodate Fish I did provide small openings at the base of this design allowing fish to hide behind the abutment wall amongst the large backfill boulders, the trout really hide out in those man made crevices.

       Other details not shown.

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Earth Slides

In certain territories we may use the below proposed horizontal anchoring. This will horizontally anchor the bridges, road or rail line to the given mountainside. Cross-sectional impact loadings such as during massive floods demand attention.  Achieve created resistance by the horizontal tensional anchors in to the bedrock. The vertical pylons [bridge carriers] will then be able to resist the possible bending affect [side loadings] therefore preventing the collapse. Such approaches may be especially be benefiting in areas of ravines where water and mud may impact the bridge, causing the cross-sectional stress. Also I would like to promote some opening between the mountainside ravine and the bridge were ever possible; this open sluice will then allow water and mud to bypass the bride deck. In addition this Principal intends were also for other slide areas to fasten or widen roadways, either rail or highway. Use identical plans to fasten rock falls in steep and fragile sections; then add wire mesh and gunite layovers with enough concrete.

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The shown plan below are for slide prone areas, here we stabilize the hillsides with the artificial construction of concrete cans.

The Diameter can vary but should be of satisfactory in size that is a minimum of 24 feet but more likely 32 feet plus with a height of 8 feet. As we progress with the retaining construction we will then be able to refill the cans from the advancing excavation and so progress one after the next, progressing in repetition in the following rows. Move the concrete form assemblies to the next can location by crane and so insert the preassembled rebar curtains, concrete pumps will fill the forms. 

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 Add measures for drainage to hold slide prone slopes in place see above; maintenance of a pond.

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Levees

The explained levee design below may not apply to Hawaii, but it is for, say, New Orleans applications. The currant design is a simple straight wall and therefore producing little resistance to the imposed water pressure.

In addition, during a Hurricane we will also experience two wind directional impacts; say east-west in the first phase and then the reversed air direction flow after passing the eye to the west-east direction. Now, during this time the wind forces will apply pressure to the levee walls in a near horizontal flow in most of the time frame, only occasionally are there up and downdraft conditions. [This is contrary to a tornado with its suction pattern]. However the pressure is not dynamically constant but will in fact vibrate. This, in wave pattern progressing pressure flow will then create a fatigue condition in the shoe or base section of the tangent levee walls because of the rapidly, however minute vibration in the tangent wall. This vibrating movement (around 144 cycles per minute) will also help to re-liquefy the relative light by weight soils in the end of the river route such as in New Orleans. Such deposited soils are weak to provide strong anchoring for flood walls designed in the straight manner as erected in New Orleans.  The now-liquefied soils will then loose all the anchor resistance for the levee walls.

 (I have watched the pulsations of Hurricane Iniki in Princeville Kauai from my House and taken many mental notes there off.)     

The arch design will address this problem since during water build-up and its pressure will in effect put the curved wall in to the state of compression rather than in to tension. Subjected tension loading is therefore reducing the bulwark against the waters pressure. This arched design will also deflect the airflow pattern in to mini-updraft cyclones therefore reducing the imposed vibration and contribute to reducing the soil re-liquefaction.

New Orleans Levees should have been built according the proposed rule and the failures would have been minor.

Hawaii; for some places in Hawaii, this levee plan may be applicable to lessen tsunami damage. Here we may also call such walls, storm surge barriers. Should we build such "tsunami walls", then we may provide openings for access to the beaches. Provided beach access gates with manually working gates and then close them during a tsunami alert. We could calculate the anticipated damage versa the installation cost of such a prevention barrier, to erect prevention may be cheaper than the alternative risk damage.

Alter illustrative measurements to suite the need; that is wall heights, wall thickness, post or piling lengths and depts.

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Top = view of the levee or flood wall in by directional application. Set up part lengths as needed.

Below = view, levee in channel application. Note: flow accelerator jets.

 Build only the single walls if against sea or lake.  

 

  

Remove public road grade crossings, both for safety reasons and to always allow the trains to run at their designed speeds. This would include over or underpasses for regular highway traffic crossings. Allow cane trucks to use the private roadway temporary crossings, but they need automatic signaling and gates and closing of the gates during none field service time.

The Rolling Stock   

Design rolling stock to the lightest, but safest, way possible, rolling material weight demand acceleration power. Add waste aluminum grit to the sand to increase adhesion, especially, during start-ups. The Aluminum would be of the recycled and the last reusable properties. The interior design should also have a small map with little blinking lights at the station stops, and arrows showing the respective direction of the moving train, as well as the approaching station, similar to those in elevators. (International language) Include great consideration of noise dampening in the railcars design. Let's have a train in which we can ride with comfort. We should also include a place for surfboards and bicycle transport, since they are a companion of a good many people.

The Means to Power the Trains   

CATENARIES will supply the electrical power to the trains. This catenary design will also work as the collector of the regenerated braking electricity. Transformer stations will provide in the proper power flow in the respective section lines.

Allow enough head clearance between catenaries overhead wires and the grade to allow the sugarcane truck crossing. 

The Tracks  

Install the all-welded track design as the thermal coefficient is favorable here in Hawaii. The tie version would need to be of pre-stressed concrete and fully encased, or we may be able to produce wire mesh reinforced (recycled plastic) ties. The wire could come from recycled steel-belted tires. Again, the rock and sand for concrete and ballast comes from the local area. Use satisfactory amounts of ballast for proper banking in curve sections and to carry the trains. Transport the ballast from the source forward by rail to the advancing construction side and cancel highway truck traffic, therefore lessen traffic congestion during construction. Provide by rail-fed satellite gravel dumps, allowing us to set up remote concrete mixing plants, reducing road traffic. The added benefit is a better concrete quality because of the fact of the now shorter delivery distance for the trucks reducing long mix time. Shorter delivery distances will also improve prompt customer service and save fuel and air pollution.  

The Construction of the Tracks  

Track installation at city road surface, the tracks are aligned and then concreted in to the rebar grit

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Foundation with aligned tracks and rebar, the green crossbars are the leveling devices for the track work

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Concrete is being poured, note: the temporary masking tape over the tracks is being removed as the pour progresses

Street Tracks

Finished track work with rail switch, this switch is remote controlled, the road surface is completely smooth for the automobile traffic

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Rail in independent right of way, this is all welded rail on concrete tie's or sleepers, note the softeners between the rail and the tie

Brested Concrete Tie - Designed by Rudy Niederer  

Below you see the breasted concrete Tie and next the standard concrete Tie.

This new design has a greater bearing surface and will therefore reduce the pressure on to the Ballast. In addition to this design we can have a greater spacing between the Ties and this will result in to less concrete usage per mile. In addition to the design we will also create a greater stability for the roadbed since the breasting will also be a bulwark against "side shifts"

Specific details are at my CAD drawings

 RN Tie

Self Sink - Caisson free Foundation

This is a new idea to build foundation in certain soil substrates. This will be a caisson free construction.

On this project we will startup with the prefabricated steel shear foot. On the inside this shear foot we will weld the connecting rebar's, to receive the connecting rebar curtain. This shear foot will be placed on ground and near to the final placement of the foundation. There we will then erect the inside steel formwork. Next we will build the rebar curtain attached to the shear foot the rebar's will be both horizontal and vertical. The vertical bars need to be higher than the steel formwork with a height of rough 6 feet. Once this is succeeded we will then apply the outside steel form. This formwork can then be filled with concrete. On the top we need to insert the 3 lifting eyes spaced at 120 degree each. The lifting eyes will be needed to lift this first column or tube in to the final position by a crane.

On finding the foundation we will pre-excavate a hole to the dept of about 5 feet. As soon as this hole is open we will then set the first piece of the column with the outside form removed. The column must be held plum now; the crane can hold the column in the perfect and plum position. Then we will backfill the outside perimeter. The next step is then to raise the 8 foot inside form, leaving 1 foot or so in the column. Again this formwork must to be plum. Then we will again continue with the rebar curtain and follow up with the outside form. Then we pump concrete to fill the form up again.

The pre-excavation:

Now we can start with the first excavation with the clam-shell dredger, the excavation will advance down to the water table. As we excavate the soil inside the column so will then the column shear it self-down and will again become available to receive the next concrete addition. The weight of the column will ever increase and therefore self-sink.

Water table:

Once we reach the water table we are then ready to install the reversed looking funnel. This steel plate with all the pipe openings and the respective sleeves and the first section of the swivel jets will then be attached to the column and be reinforced with rebar's. At this location we need to drill-grout the connecting rebar's to the column. Next we apply gunite to create a sound and strong base.  After that we will install the piping. The also pump aided mud out will be connected to a sediment pond or to a large basin, at this location the mud can settle out and then we can reuse the water again for the wash-out. On the return side the water will be pumped with multistage impeller pumps to supply wash-out water to the revolving jets. From now on the wash-out sink-up will progress. Once we reach the bedrock then the sink-up will end.

Anchorage:

At this point we will inject Sika cement to seal the base underneath the funnel arrangement. Once the inverted cone is sealed we can then drill to the needed depth in to the bedrock for the piling installation. All this work can now be performed below the water table and caisson free.

Offshore construction:

Here we can also start this concrete tube complete with the upside down funnel in a dry dock. We need to calculate the first weight of the startup column and the water displacement there off. Once the water displacement is satisfactory we can the float this pre-section out to deeper waters. Next we will add section on section and fill the inside with the needed water ballast. Once this pre-constructed column is fix-anchored in the correct position and of course with the enough height above water we will then be ready to start the washout. The wash-out for the sink-up progress does need to advance in a care full manner so as not to allow a slip-away. Then again the next step will be as above the anchoring to the bedrock. If this column will be of high loading, such as a bridge peer we simply will fill the inside with concrete. If the fill is large we may be required to install artificial cooling chambers, perhaps seawater cooled. Should we use see-water, then we must after the cool-down chemically neutralize the saltwater in the cooling chambers. 

Useful application for this proposal:

Bridge piers

Oil platforms

Wind generator foundations at sea or near high water table substrata

Water well collecting fountains with horizontal collector arteries

Large span bridges, i.e. in Sweden - Denmark and other places including a possible rail bridge across the Bering Strait to link Europe-Asia with the Americas. Then again we may also use this technique to build oil platforms. I proposed this concept to Sell Oil in Martinez in CA 

02/05/1985

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