HART-BEAT

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06  ENERGY PRODUCTION & DESIGN ENGINEERING

Recycling is the priority aspect.

We must make recycling used materials the priority in our national economy.

We must treat the diverse used materials as recourse products and not as waste.

We must provide suitable collection containers and stations to drop-off the materials.

We must educate the population in a continuing learning throughout all age groups to achieve results.

We must encourage the public to become participants in the recycling programs.

We must heighten the say of the people in none dictatorial ways; which means government needs to listen to the people's recommendations.

We must teach the preservation; that means recycled materials remanufacture and that will consume less energy and fewer virgin resources.

We, the people, lets recycle.

 

Lawe aku i ka opala a me ho'ohana ka

Take away the rubbish and use it

A high recommend for cogeneration for Kauai

RUBBISH TO ELECTRICITY

Regardless of the added load the rail-tramway will place on Kauai's electrical production, the island will still need more electricity production. Population growth, based on current projections alone, will create this need. The planners of HART-BEAT, whose philosophy is to incorporate as many problems and concerns as possible into one action. Look at this and ask, "What electrical-generating would follow the principles of this philosophy and suit the needs of a community. We discussed solar electrical production, but there is an another source of energy production possible.

On September 14, 1989, the County of Kauai stated.

County Landfills are filling up.

Suitable Landfill sites are getting rare.

Construction costs have increased dramatically.

Solid Waste Production is rising.

Wastewater sludge is increasing as flows increase.

New plants are coming into use and primary treatment plant change-over to include secondary treatment must come on line.

Commercial users face increasing disposal costs.

Tipping fees, transport and landfill cover material costs add to the normal charges.

 The current average daily collection in 1999-2000 is apx.76 tons, private sector. 

And the commercial side is an other 180 tons a day (The Garden Island 04/14/2000)

(an increase since 1990) and still increasing by our modern throw-away society.

 This is far to much for our little - land limited Island -

 The combined total = 256t also the equivalent (gross combined) of 256 barrels of 

oil per day = $6400 per day @ $25.00 per barrel.  Or $ 2'336'000.00 annually.

Folks please look at those numbers.

The most obvious method of electrical production, taking these concerns as stated by the County of Kauai

            The mass-burn is the other solution, therefore the better one.

                           Kauai's converter may:

1. Burn pre-sorted and none recyclable Garbage.

2. Burn Bagasse, a sugar production byproduct

3. Burn Methane Gas

4. Treat Solid Sewage Waste and convert it into added burning material, or use it as dry sludge to be an additive to compost and as fertilizer.  

The need for converting garbage is obvious; dwindling landfill space is already a problem and there are projections for significant increases in Kauai's population which will only worsen the problem. The main reason for burning garbage is landfill space cut. Control dangerous pollutants into the atmosphere by the mass burn and scrubbers.

Dioxin emissions are of particular concern because they are greater at lower temperatures, "the old incinerators."

PLASMA TECHNOLOGY = ZERO EMISSION

Currently not suitable for KAUAI, reason = we need

to look forwards for the electrical generation of 

alternative fuels and build accordingly.

Biomass

Incorporate bagas, the sugar by-product, into the mass burner. Burn Island produced biomass of diverse origin. Stay carbon emission neutral, since anything growing aboveground will reabsorb the emitted carbon gases in the closed loop approach. Consider that anything burned from underground is carbon dioxide loading to the environment unless we find away to redeposit this carbon dioxide emission back to the point of origin by sequestration.

Burn bagas and second the no longer recyclable trash plus the added Island produced biomass. Oil is only for backup burning and to uphold the base load. Install heat recovery in the whole mass burn application to recover all thermal energy.

Look at the future for need for self-reliance and dominating factors.

Failure to deal with emission controls by political money buying influence is not acceptable for the country and none democratic.

Market forces are often in conflict with viewpoints toward the environment. Economics with application to destroy make no sense in any spot.

   METHANE AND ITS SOURCES

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The methane gas could come from the sewage treatment plants from across the island. The treatment plants would need anaerobic digesting generators to create the methane gas from the raw sewage. Pipe the formed methane gas in a perhaps recycled plastic pipeline [PVC] to the in mass burner. The gas would flow under negative pressure--4 to 6 inches of water or nearly minus 0.18 lbs. The reasons are to conserve energy in the transport; no gas escape to the atmosphere if any leak should develop and to reduce explosion danger. Methane change to hydrogen may be possible in the future. De-moisturize  methane gas for direct burning in gas stoves in household applications.

Collected methane gas at closed landfill sites. Install suction pipes in to the cover soil. Gather the methane gas in to the manifold at the main pipeline. Orifice decrease will be needed at the landfill's collection pipes to keep a modest vacuum in the main. Vacuum pumps and the equalizer tanks would be at the mass burn plant. Exhaust from the vacuum pumps will then be blown into the furnace for combustion. Methane gas is low on pollutants and "Also extract energy." Methane unrefined for raw for burning in the mass burner is OK. Moisture traps and escapes along the line will be required (see schematic) not on the web now. If methane gas is used as combustion engine fuel, then refining is required, thus increasing the cost of the fuel. Also remember the thermal efficiency of the combustion engine! The growing population of Kauai will create ever greater amounts of solid waste, therefore we must address the issue and solve the condition.

To produce more off the collectable methane gas we may want to re-circulate some of the seepage water from the bottom liner wells to the top of the landfill trash pile. This recirculation will moisten the trash and strengthen the bacterial growth. Digestion and breakdown of the refuse will complete the phase and produce more of the usable methane gas.

A well designed and run Bio Gas producing station should pay for it self in about 3 years, here again we must consider the remote location of the Island with it's associated transport costs to bring in foreign fuels.

 Community lets get it together.

The Environmental Protection Agency published in the Federal Register on February 6, 1989 this statement: "The EPA will actively promote those municipal sludge management practices that provide for the beneficial use of sludge while maintaining or improving environmental quality and protecting public health." According to John Moore, former acting administrator of the EPA, "this proposal will help lower the contaminant level of sludge and make it easier for the local communities to market it successfully. The purpose of this rule is not to reduce sludge volume, but to assure a quality of sludge that is safe. The rule would encourage local communities throughout the nation and beyond to recognize the value of sludge as a marketable resource. Sludge normally contains organic material that can be sold as agricultural or home garden fertilizer for as much as $30-$60 per dry ton."

Incineration:

Opponents of incineration cite environmental affects such as gaseous and particulate emissions, including toxic substances such as dioxins, toxic units in both bottom and fly-ash, possible water pollution and silting problems. They also stress the high costs of construction and maintenance and the potential of incineration to obstruct setting up recycling programs or to weaken their effectiveness. How valid are those objections?

Argumentation about toxicity disposal in the ash is prevalent; however it is true there are toxic ingredients in the ash. Example; if we have for example 1 gram of arsenic and 1 gram of lead in "100 cubic feet" of raw trash. Result; then in total there is no more or no less of the arsenic or lead toxins to in the material so or so. The difference however is, there is a volumetric difference. We may now consider the disposal mater of from a point of cubic area (the volumetric decline with burning is up to 85%) This volumetric decrease will now need a far smaller landfill area. The smaller area will allow us to be more efficient to collect contaminants due to the smaller collection space.

Also burn--extract energy--reduce landfill space and contain the toxins in a smaller area. Perhaps we find a way to create a fixed form in the future, let us hope so.

"WHERE THERE IS A WILL - THERE IS A WAY."

The choice is not between incineration and recycling, but between incineration and landfills. Even if a recycling rate of 50 percent (equal to that of Japan, Switzerland, the best in the world), is achieved,  then some reduction burning is still necessary. The challenge is to use state-of-the-art technologies to expand both recycling and incineration, and to continue to refine these technologies. 

Understanding and cooperation of citizens is essential!

Concerns about pollution, health effects, although valid for early incinerators that lacked emission controls and exhausted combustion gasses directly to the atmosphere are much less valid today. Pollution will continue to decrease as new state-of-the-art plants are built around the world, such as the one being proposed and envisaged here for Kauai.

THE TRASH BIN

Build the Trash Bin with a pre-heath device which will use waste heath to pre-dry the incoming trash. This pre-drying of the trash will give us a better combustion and produce more heath Btu's in the furnace. The pre-heath source will come from the steam condenser and or from the hot exhaust gas stream.

Build the trash collection bin with exhaust hood over the bin, bin produced smells, bacteria's and vapors will now flow to the furnace combustion chamber and be destroyed. This will reduce vicinity odor and burn harmful bacteria from the trash bin territory and set up clean and friendly neighborhood areas.

The dual Boiler

Since we will burn multifuel sources, meaning bagase and trash we may need the multifunction grating. This is especially so as for lumped and wet trash clumps. Please see the illustration for this idea.

Black arrows point out the fuel flow stream.

Maroon is the multigrading.

Blue is the rotating drums. Rotating the water cooled drums will shred and break up the lumped material. This breakup will improve the combustion of the fuel and advance ash decrease, the main idea to lessen landfill space. By doing this we can also extract the maximum Btu’s from the fuels.

Brown is the boiler housing, no details shown.

THE HEAT EXCHANGER

The heat exchanger could be of a two-stage design. Exhaust steam will preheat makeup water for the boiler and the second stage will future heat the makeup water before entering the boiler chamber.

Dual use of turbine exhaust steam will take place, first improving re-condensation of the exhaust steam and second preheating the combustion air.

Rapid condensing pull down is contributing to the increase of the overall efficiency of the steam turbine (negative steam turbine exit pressure). Decrease of cooling water need in the loop is conserving water and pumping energy.

Recycling programs such as the onset into 1990 has the wholehearted support of the planners of HART-BEAT.

Kauai can be a partner with the environment.

Chlorine (chlorine is a coral destroyer) to make the product harmless, there should be no such chemical contamination, also pasteurize.

THE KILN - WASTE HEAT RECOVERY

Feed the kiln with a hydraulic stoker plunger with the raw sludge. Install a fixed kiln wall scraper at the first stage of the drying phase to avoid caking. Forward stages of the kiln will incorporate the regular wall mounted kiln paddles. Forwarded sludge will heat up and achieve sterilization. 

Heat source for the drying is the gas (smoke) waste heat on the end stream of the furnace. Drying of the sludge will not consume heating energy. However, energy is needed to run the plunger, turn the kiln, the conveyor belts, and the gas exhaust fans. Energy is thus slight, thus not an energy consumer.

This is a new technological idea the planners of HART-BEAT wish to incorporate into the expert plan. 

Multifunction ideas are creative and will help lessen many of the problems facing Kauai. It will ease the demand placed on the dwindling landfill space of the Garden Isle, and deal with wastewater, sludge and solid waste (garbage) disposal. 

In addition we can also use the downstream steam from the turbine to heath the kiln, options are available. See sketch below!

 This sterilized sludge creates a cheaper, chlorine free and safer market of fertilizers for Kauai's home garden and agricultural needs. 

Kiln

WASTE HEAT TO ICE

Capture waste heat to produce ice by the water/ammonia absorption cycle, or use produced chill water in the cascade (30ºF degree below 0ºF) application in the conventional ice production. Use chill water for air-conditioning were ever possible and to pre-cool the feed water in the ice making. Use industrial ice as concrete additive; this will lower the hydration heat, a must in warm climates and in mass concrete applications. Use this produced ice in icehouse settings to reduce external energy consumption. Transport such ice in insulated trucks to recipients. 

Heat sources; exit steam at the steam turbines 250ºF ±, exit gases at the thermal boilers 350ºF>, exit gases at the diesel engines 350ºF>. For cooling water treatment; use existing conventional applications.

Here again an argumentation may take place. On looking on this we may say, "This is needing a major capital investment!" This is true; however, the result of labor in all phases will have returns. The gains are that people who work on this island will be able to contribute to their livelihood and create means and ways to do so.

Here again an argumentation may take place. Upon looking on this we may say, "This is requiring a major capital investment!" This is true; however, the result of input of labor in all phases will have returns. The gains are, that people who work on this island will be able to contribute to their livelihood and create means and ways to do so.

http://www.nap.edu/books/030906371X/html/related.html

INVEST IN THE BEST!  Can You Now Rest?

REFUSE AND SLUDGE TRANSPORT

Transport the refuse during off-peek from the diverse compactor stations around the island to the mass burn location on the rail. Reduce highway truck traffic and congestion and increase road safety. Park the special, leak proof, designed railcars at the compactor to receive the trash. Combine many railcars in to one consist for the transport to the mass burn station and conserve fuel. Lessen highway wear and tear and use domestic produced energy, sludge transport may be identical.   

Solar energy  -  the none extractive source

See solar power and its uses.

click  http://www.azsolarcenter.com/

http://www.solarworks.com

Wind power

 x

This is an other wind blade turbine design, note the feadered edges on the tailing side. This should reduce noise and drag, therefore increase the blade efficiency.

Wind Turbine Blade (nodified)

 Below you will find higher ed. data for wind generators

http://www.windpower.org/en/core.htm Click for english language on this site

and for the keiki (kids)

http://www.windpower.org/en/kids/index.htm

http://www.vestas.com/en/about-vestas/company-structure/vestas-americas.aspx

 

CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS

 

Create wet-lands for wastewater purification; use the ponds to collect storm runoff and to feed the wetlands. Promote groundwater recharging and a home for a host of aquatic life, wildlife and natural organisms that combine to make up a complex ecosystem that stabilizes itself.

Wetlands are an essential to the integrated whole of the ecosystem on Kauai and on all the Hawaiian Islands. Teach Man's past ignorance of valuable natural reserve with the knowledge of the wetlands’ role. However with new understanding, we can pick up acceptable results. The knowledge that wetlands play a valuable role in the ecosystem will allow Kauai to make use of them and create a valuable economics for Kauai as well.

Water purifying with water hyacinths is in research and currently used on the Mainland. Water hyacinths grow and multiply, harvesting of the plants is necessary as the harvested biomass produce methane gas. (Problems with mosquitoes)

http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wq/plants/weeds/aqua010.html

Compost the slurry from the biogas (digester) to use as a nutrient-rich soil amendment. Introduce effluent water to modeled wetlands for natural treatment. Use the cleaned water for reforestation projects with drip irrigation application. Consider this pond water as value and preservation of environment with responsible action.

What waste is this? An example is the City of Los Angeles which produces 520 million gallons of effluent water a day, and deposits it into the ocean. 520 million gallons of water will cover one-square-mile of land with two-and-a-half feet of water. How this waste can continue is beyond to understand the planers of the integrated HART BEAT plan.

Ten acres of wetlands will treat a million gallons-a-day. Agricultural land is suitably zoned, so set away 50 or 100 acres of cane land. Environmentally sound use of land is of great value to the landowner (lease it to the people), than subsidized agriculture.

Economics are very interesting, it is estimated that a constructed wetlands system can be implemented at a cost saving from one-third to one-half than of  conventional treatment. EPA funded Most of the capital costs (the cost of building the plant) in the form of grants. That is all changed now, revolving loan funds must be paid back, they indebted the county and the taxpayer for the life of the plan.

Installed effluent lines along the light-rail enable delivering the now recyclable commodity at reasonable cost, let us preserve water.

It would be a good idea for the people of Kauai to study this HART BEAT proposal.

http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/AR/archive/nov97/shed1197.htm  

Alternate Sustainable Systems

Here you can get a sample of energy applications, play the game or study the outcome!

http://www.willyoujoinus.com/energyville/index.aspx?economist=eco3459

Let us have,

The best in the west

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